From brief historical facts for China on communication with foreign countries, when top leaders hold the idea that “all lands are owned by central government, all people should surrender to government’s power”, the government held closed-door policy. In those historical period, China will be in a position of passive to cope with external challenges. On the contrary, as long as the China central government takes a proactive and open attitude towards the outside world, the sino-foreign relations are like the waves of the river and the interactions will keep going.
The Transformation of Civilization (Series 17)
The Important Composition of Human History: History of Communication between China and the World